Date of Award


Document Type

Graduate Field Experience

Superseded Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education (Reading/Language Arts)

Colleges & School

College Of Education And Leadership

First Advisor

Lori J. Ladiges

Library of Congress Subject Heading

Academic achievement--Testing; Apraxia; Children--Language; English language--Phonology; Children with disabilities--Language


This case study research examined the effects of spelling by analogy on the phonological awareness of a first grader with oral and verbal apraxia, a disorder generally referred to as childhood apraxia of speech. An intervention using a variety of activities focused on spelling by analogy was provided over a six week period. It was hypothesized that these instructional methods would increase the participant's phonological awareness and thus his word identification, decoding, and spelling skills as evidenced by pre-and posttest comparisons. Following the completion of 12 hour-long tutoring sessions, post-assessment findings revealed increases in spelling, phonological awareness, reading levels and strategy use, as well as sound and sight word identification. Recommendations for home and school are included.


On-Campus Access

OCLC Number