The Effects of Explicit Modeling of Phoneme Features and Phonemic Awareness Activities on Writing for a Child with a Phonological Disorder

Jennifer L. Heinen


This study examined the effects of explicit teacher modeling during phonemic awareness instruction on a child's orthographic development. The five-year-old child attended K-4 in an urban school, and had been identified with a speech and language disability in K3. He was receiving speech/language services to remediate a phonological disorder at the time of the study. The child's disability affected his emergent writing abilities; therefore, this study was designed to improve his orthographic knowledge. Intervention included explicit modeling of phonemic awareness instruction in the context of journal writing activities. Writing samples were collected over six weeks and assessed using a rubric for analysis of the number of phonemes represented in his invented spellings. Findings indicated that researched based intervention positively effects emergent writing for a child with a phonological disorder.