Date of Award


Document Type

Action Research Paper

Superseded Degree Name

Master Of Arts In Special Education

Colleges & School

College Of Education And Leadership

First Advisor

Sister Gabrielle Kowalski, O.S.F.

Library of Congress Subject Heading

African American students; Phonemics; Spelling ability; English language--Graphemics; Graphemics; Reading--Phonetic method


The act of reading involves complex processes such as phonological awareness, fluency, vocabulary, phonics, and comprehension that are not hardwired into the human brain, thus they must be explicitly taught. In economically disadvantaged families, most primary caregivers do not have the time or expertise to provide this type of instruction to children (Jensen, 2009). Through my experiences I have seen this to be true and as an educator have strived to provide the missing instruction particularly to students with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a phoneme-grapheme mapping strategy helped African-American students from such families further develop their phoneme awareness, decoding, and spelling in order to improve their overall basic reading achievement.


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