Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master Of Arts In Urban Education

Colleges & School

College Of Education And Leadership

First Advisor

Michael Flaherty

Library of Congress Subject Heading

Mathematics--Audiovisual aids; Multiplication; Fourth grade (Education)


The purpose of this action research study was to increase multiplication fact fluency for a small class of fourth grade students by implementing an efficient intervention model. The research question was: What are the effects of a Taped-Problems (TP) intervention on multiplication fact fluency of fourth grade Title I math students? This study applied a quantitative, quasiexperimental, one-group pretest-posttest design. To test the effect TP intervention had on student multiplication fact fluency, mean DCM scores on baseline assessment probes were compared to mean DCM scores on maintenance assessment probes with a two-tailed dependent t-test. For two of the three problem sets, the maintenance mean DCM scores increased significantly over the baseline mean DCM scores. Furthermore, analysis of individual student mean DCM scores indicated an increase from either frustration level to instructional level or instructional level to mastery level (Deno & Mirkin, 1977). The data moderately supported the hypothesis that TP intervention affected student multiplication fact fluency. Based on the results of this study, further research would be merited on examining the number of intervention sessions as related to sustained maintenance DCM scores. It would also be advantageous for future research to investigate the effects of efficiency modifications such as training students or developing computer software for independent administration of the TP intervention.


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