Karen Ragan

Date of Award


Document Type

Research Paper

Superseded Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education (Education of Learning Disabled Children)

Colleges & School

Cardinal Stritch College

Degree Granted By

Cardinal Stritch College

Library of Congress Subject Heading

Learning disabled teenagers; English language--Study and teaching (Secondary)


This paper reviewed the current research on why learning disabled adolescents have failed in written expression and reported the latest and most effective strategies being used to teach written expression to learning disabled adolescents. Attention is also given to the assessment of written language. The practical implications of the research are related to the secondary classroom. A process approach to teaching expressive writing is discussed in terms of why it is important and how it is used. Two other models of instruction are proposed: a holistic model and linguistic model. Supplementary commercial programs were reviewed. Although written expression requires skills in the three areas of handwriting, spelling, and composition, only the area of composition was reviewed and reported in this paper. Literature since 1980 was reviewed with emphasis on the assessment of written language, why learning disabled adolescents have failed in written expression, key factors in selecting or designing a writing program for learning disabled adolescents, and expressive writing strategies for learning disabled students in the secondary classroom.


Open Access

OCLC Number


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