Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master Of Arts In Clinical Psychology

Colleges & School

College Of Arts And Sciences

First Advisor

Terri deRoon-Cassini, PhD

Library of Congress Subject Heading

Post-traumatic stress disorder; Wounds and injuries


Objective: To investigate when PTSD symptoms are highest after a traumatic event and how the symptom clusters differ during recovery using a four factor model of symptoms. Also, to examine the influence depression has on PTSD symptom clusters and symptom trajectories. Method: This was a retrospective analysis of a prospective longitudinal study which included 67 injured trauma survivors from a level 1 trauma center. Participants were interviewed during hospitalization and at 6 weeks post trauma. PTSD was measured at both timepoints using the PTSD Symptom Scale, Interview Version (PSS-I). Depression was measured at the 6 weeks using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Revised (CESD-R). Results: There was a significant increase of overall PSS-I score from Time1 to Time2. When evaluating the symptom clusters, hyper arousal and numbing significantly increased, while re-experiencing and avoidance symptoms did not. The results specified that PSS-I scores were significantly different between depressed and not depressed groups of participants, with those being depressed having a higher PSS-I total score. There were significantly higher numbing symptoms in those that were depressed compared to those that were not depressed. Lastly, the data identified that there was a difference in depression scores for the four PTSD trajectory groups. Conclusion: These data show that depression and PTSD are highly comorbid, with PTSD symptoms increasing over time, and both should be considered when assessing patients with mental health concerns after a traumatic event.


On-Campus Access

OCLC Number